Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Prehistoric Life During the Paleogene Period

Prehistoric Life During the Paleogene Period The 43 million years of the Paleogene period represent a crucial interval in the evolution of mammals, birds, and reptiles, which were free to occupy new ecological niches after the demise of the dinosaurs following the K/T Extinction Event. The Paleogene was the first period of the Cenozoic Era (65 million years ago to the present), followed by the Neogene period (23-2.6 million years ago), and is itself divided into three important epochs: the Paleocene (65-56 million years ago), the Eocene (56-34 million years ago) and the Oligocene (34-23 million years ago). Climate and Geography. With some significant hiccups, the Paleogene period witnessed a steady cooling of the earths climate from the hothouse conditions of the preceding Cretaceous period. Ice began to form at both the North and South poles and seasonal changes were more pronounced in the northern and southern hemispheres, which had a significant impact on plant and animal life. The northern supercontinent of Laurasia gradually broke apart into North America in the west and Eurasia in the east, while its southern counterpart Gondwana continued to fracture into South America, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica, all of which began drifting slowly to their present positions. Terrestrial Life Mammals. Mammals didnt suddenly appear on the scene at the start of the Paleogene period; in fact, the first primitive mammals originated in the Triassic period, 230 million years ago. In the absence of dinosaurs, though, mammals were free to radiate into a variety of open ecological niches. During the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, mammals still tended to be fairly small but had already started evolving along definite lines: the Paleogene is when you can find the earliest ancestors of whales, elephants, and odd- and even-toed ungulates (hoofed mammals). By the Oligocene epoch, at least some mammals had begun to grow to respectable sizes, though they werent nearly as impressive as their descendants of the ensuing Neogene period. Birds. During the early part of the Paleogene period, birds, and not mammals, were the dominant land animals on earth (which shouldnt be all that surprising, given that they had evolved from recently extinct dinosaurs). One early evolutionary trend was toward large, flightless, predatory birds like Gastornis, which superficially resembled meat-eating dinosaurs, as well as the meat-eating avians known as terror birds, but subsequent eons saw the appearance of more diverse flying species, which were similar in many respects to modern birds. Reptiles. Although dinosaurs, pterosaurs and marine reptiles had gone completely extinct by the start of the Paleogene period, the same wasnt true for their close cousins, the crocodiles, which not only managed to survive the K/T Extinction but actually flourished in its aftermath (while retaining the same basic body plan). The deepest roots of snake and turtle evolution can be located in the later Paleogene, and small, inoffensive lizards continued to scurry underfoot. Marine Life Not only the dinosaurs went extinct 65 million years ago; so did their vicious marine cousins, the mosasaurs, along with the last remaining plesiosaurs and pliosaurs. This sudden vacuum at the top of the marine food chain naturally spurred the evolution of sharks (which had already been around for hundreds of millions of years, though in smaller sizes). Mammals had yet to venture fully into the water, but the earliest, land-dwelling ancestors of whales prowled the Paleogene landscape, most notably in central Asia, and may have had semi-amphibious lifestyles. Plant Life Flowering plants, which had already made a cameo appearance toward the end of the Cretaceous period, continued to flourish during the Paleogene. The gradual cooling of the earths climate paved the way for vast deciduous forests, mostly on the northern continents, with jungles and rainforests increasingly restricted to equatorial regions. Toward the end of the Paleogene period, the first grasses appeared, which would have a significant impact on animal life during the ensuing Neogene period, spurring the evolution of both prehistoric horses and the saber-toothed cats that preyed on them.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Free Essays on Florida In The Year 2010

Florida in the Year 2010: The Effects that Florida’s Young and Old Will Have on Our Future As we approach the half way mark in this decade of Florida’s history in the new millennium, we have somewhat of an idea of what is in store for Florida government and it’s constituents. As advances are made daily, we can see vast changes and improvements in the political, social, and economic arenas of our state. But what is to come in the next five years? What exactly will Florida look like as it ends this decade in the year 2010? We can use information that we have collected from the recent past (such as the 2000 census) and reach back into our states rich history to predict what we can expect in the near future for Florida. Florida would not be what it is today if it were not for the residents that live in it. The people that reside here and their backgrounds and beliefs are the driving forces behind all that makes this state work. Therefore, it is Florida’s population that is the first indicator as to what changes are in store for it’s future. While Florida’s ethnic flare in the south and our historical increase in immigrants from Latin and Southern American countries have been a steady constant in the population, there are two other demographics that are steadily rising and are taking the forefront in Florida’s population shift. As the products of the â€Å"Baby Boom† generation that occurred post World War II are nearing the golden years of retirement, they are migrating south and seeking the warm sunny beaches and communities of Florida as their new homes. The sixty-five years and older demographic has exploded, and in the 2000 census this age group consisted of 17.6 % of Florida’s total population (Florida Quick Facts, 2003). These senior citizens are not concerned with being located near urban centers where proximity to a job is of importance, so they have sought out the suburbs of cities such as Tampa, Orl... Free Essays on Florida In The Year 2010 Free Essays on Florida In The Year 2010 Florida in the Year 2010: The Effects that Florida’s Young and Old Will Have on Our Future As we approach the half way mark in this decade of Florida’s history in the new millennium, we have somewhat of an idea of what is in store for Florida government and it’s constituents. As advances are made daily, we can see vast changes and improvements in the political, social, and economic arenas of our state. But what is to come in the next five years? What exactly will Florida look like as it ends this decade in the year 2010? We can use information that we have collected from the recent past (such as the 2000 census) and reach back into our states rich history to predict what we can expect in the near future for Florida. Florida would not be what it is today if it were not for the residents that live in it. The people that reside here and their backgrounds and beliefs are the driving forces behind all that makes this state work. Therefore, it is Florida’s population that is the first indicator as to what changes are in store for it’s future. While Florida’s ethnic flare in the south and our historical increase in immigrants from Latin and Southern American countries have been a steady constant in the population, there are two other demographics that are steadily rising and are taking the forefront in Florida’s population shift. As the products of the â€Å"Baby Boom† generation that occurred post World War II are nearing the golden years of retirement, they are migrating south and seeking the warm sunny beaches and communities of Florida as their new homes. The sixty-five years and older demographic has exploded, and in the 2000 census this age group consisted of 17.6 % of Florida’s total population (Florida Quick Facts, 2003). These senior citizens are not concerned with being located near urban centers where proximity to a job is of importance, so they have sought out the suburbs of cities such as Tampa, Orl...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Job description Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Job description - Assignment Example The job also requires me to deal with major departments in the corporate office such as the liquor merchandise department, which is in charge of the entire liquor affairs. I also deal with the security department to ensure that security personnel scans all item sold to ensure proper inventory keeping on my part. This ensures that all the ordered stock is sold. I also deal with the wine representatives from various wine companies like Wine Warehouse, Gallo, Southern wines and spirit, and many other interested wine sellers. My job also revolves around customer service and out servicing. Customer service may involve wine tasting events where we set up a wine tasting for customers to help introduce new brands to them. Also, for those customers who are unable to reach the store, we offer home shopping. To stay relevant and competitively advantaged, research is conducted regularly to determine the latest preferences and brands preferred by the customers. Marketing our products is also anot her important strategy of increasing our sales. The store often pays for radio, television, newspaper and magazines adverts. In some occasions, posters are put all over town in order to attract more clients to our liquor stores. We offer relatively cheaper prices compared to the other liquor stores and strive to offer the best service to the customers. The necessary training required for my job position includes attending corporate training programs, wine seminars, and workshops. Corporate training helps to instill performance driven skill in me.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Teacher Tenure in California Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Teacher Tenure in California - Research Paper Example he teachers become eligible for the tenure they gain security towards their position and can only be dismissed if the school authority is able to put forward a just cause. The state law even proposed that the tenured teachers may be dismissed if they are giving unsatisfactory performance (Jederberg 43). However, as per the policy if the performance of students is low in the state it is not considered to be a condition for dismissal of teachers which in turn has resulted into more number of students exhibiting low performance. The dismissal conditions as highlighted by the court decision states that the school authority needs to give a prior notice to the employee before initiating any form of proceedings regarding dismissal due to unsatisfactory performance of a teacher. The teacher tenure policy majorly focused towards the well being of students and to retain those teachers who performed well and discard those who are not able to meet the standards of the school policy. The ones who supported the policy stated that the policy majorly aimed towards development and growth of students so that they are able to perform well in their career path. The other end of this provision was that it provided the flexibility to the school authority to focus more on performing teachers and reduce the cost by eliminating those teachers who did not perform well. The notice that would be given to the teachers before the dismissal must also include some of the behavioral instances that need to be communicated three months prior to filing charges. The major purpose of the policy was not to hide the underperforming teachers behind the tenure and to facilitate more of academic achievement of the students. There are almost 6 million students who are enrolled in the public s chools of California and thus the law was to support these students so that they are provided with an appropriate guidance. The tenure is always a security provision for teachers but this policy was aligned more towards

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Philosophy Matrix Essay Example for Free

Philosophy Matrix Essay |Principal Issues | |Field |Definition | |Schools Of Thought |Key Contributors | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Metaphysics |The study of being: The nature |Plato developed the theory of |Monism |Pythagoras |Metaphysics: Questions about the | | |of being and what |forms and introduced skepticism |Materialism |Parmenides |nature of reality | | |characteristics make up being |about reality. Aristotle coined |Idealism |Heraclitus |Nature of ultimate reality | | | |the word metaphysics. Augustine |Dualism |Zeno |Permanence and Change | | | |reconciled Platonism with | |Empedocles |Appearance and reality | | | |Christianity. Aquinas reconciled| |Anaxagoras |Nature of human reality | | | |Aristotle with Christianity. The| |Plato |Mind-body problems | | | |Scientific Revolution | |Aristotle |Freedom and determinism | | | |Intelligent design versus | |Plotinus | | | | |evolution | |Augustine | | | | | | |Hypatia | | | | | | |Aquinas | | | |. | | |Anselm | | | | | | |Descartes | | | | | | |Hobbes | | | | | | |Hume | | | | | | |Kant | | | | | | |Kierkegaard | | | | | | |Conway | | | | | | |Spinoza | | | | | | |Leibniz | | | | | | |James | | |Moral |The study of ethics: The |Aristotle develops a system of |Ethical skepticism Descriptive |Plato, |What is a moral judgment? | | |nature, criteria, sources, |ethics. Roman influence: |Relativism Egoism Hedonism |Aristotle |What is morally right or wrong? | | |logic, and validity of moral |Epicureanism and stoicism ethics|Epicureanism Stoicism |Epictetus, | | | |value |become Christianized The Age of ||Augustine | | | | |Reason. | |Hildegard, | | | | | | |Hobbes | | | | | | |Hume, | | | | | | |Kant, | | | | | | |Bentham, | | | | | | |Mill | | |Social |The study of society and its |Greek democracy Natural law |Natural Law Contractarian theory|Augustine |How should | | |institutions, including what |becomes Christianized and is |Environmental philosophy |Aquinas |goods be distributed in a | | |would make up an ideal society. |seen as the moral law of God. | |Hobbes |society? | | | |Environmental concerns Social | |Rousseau |Do people have natural rights? | | | |justice | |Smith | | | | | | |Taylor | | | | | | |Mill | | | | | | |Moore | | | | | | |Rawls | | | | | | |Nussbaum | | |Political |The study of the state, its |Greek democracy Plato’s Republic|Democracy Constitutional Theory |Plato |What form of political state is | | |justification, and how to |Social contract Separation of |Classic Liberalism Marxism |Aristotle |best? | | |organize it ethically |power |Anarchism Libertarianism |Machiavelli |Can a government restrict the | | | | |Objectivism |Locke |liberty of its citizens? | | | | | |Hegel | | | | | | |Marx | | | | | | |Nozick | | | | | | |Rand | | |Structuralism |The study of the rules and |Saussure applied |Semiotics |Saussure Levi-Strauss |Study of the deep structure of | | |conventions of the language and|linguistics to epistemology. | | |language | | | |Levi-Strauss applied Saussure’s | | | | | |cultural mythology that govern |methods to cultural | | | | | |large social systems. |mythology. | | | | |Deconstruction |The study of the assumptions |Derrida argued against |Free play of signifiers |Derrida |Seeks to expose assumptions about| | |about language, including the |structuralism. | | |language and multiple meanings | | |certainty, identity, and truth | | | |Literary criticism. | | |of text. | | | | | |Eastern |The study of the philosophical |Vedic culture Travels of |Hinduism: Vedas, Upanishads |Siddhartha Gautama Buddha |Self-realization, Unity of mind | | |traditions of Hinduism, |Confucius and Lao Tzu Spread |Buddhism: Four Noble Truths, | |and | | |Buddhism, |of Buddhism from India to China |Eightfold | |Body, Harmony of man and | | |Confucianism, and Taoism. | Japan Spread of Islam |Path Taoism Confucianism Islamic| |environment | | | |transcendentalists embrace |philosophy | | | | | |Eastern thought Parliament of | | | | | | |World Religions begins spread of| | | | | | |Eastern thought in | | | | | | |America | | | | |Postcolonial |The synthesis of the |Colonization during the 18th and|Pan-African philosophy |Senghor |Social justice Preservation of | | |disciplines of philosophy with |19th centuries. As countries |African-American thought Latin |Hountondji |oral history and tradition | | |the |gained freedom, their thinkers |American thought |Tutu |Liberation of all peoples. | | |indigenous cultures of Africa, |sought social | |King | | | |the Americas, and Asia. |justice and recognition. | |Hooks | | |Feminism |The study of the philosophical |First wave: Pioneers of feminism|Liberal Feminism Radical |Wollstonecraft |Equal rights | | |canon as reconstructed and | |Feminism Lesbian Feminism |Taylor |Moral theory and | | |revised to be inclusive of |Second wave: Activists from |Socialist Feminism Black |De Beauvoir |gender development issues Sexism | | |women and women’s issues. |1960’s to 1980’s |Feminism Post-feminism |Gilligan |and language. Revisiting other | | | |Third wave: 1990s to present, | |Chodorow |schools of | | | |including younger women for whom| |Irigaray |philosophy from a feminist | | | |feminism is an established | |Kristeva |perspective. | | | |Heritage. | |Cixous | | Directions: Complete the entire matrix and then write a 350- to 500-word response for each of the following questions: †¢ What is one example of how the global integration of cultures has affected contemporary philosophical thinking? A manner of analyzing globalization in historical standpoint has to do with the economic and social account of global affairs, and especially with the history of past stages of speedy boost in global trade, investment, communication, and authority. There have been more than a few such instances over the past centuries that come to mind. Among is the export and investment explosions of the 1860s and the earlier part of the twentieth century are merely a couple of the more remarkable instances. (2000) The history of these early periods, and of the institutions with which they were connected, is of substantial contemporary attention. Nonetheless, international history has to be far more than the history of the affairs involving states in the context of their international relations, or their conflicts, or their invasions and domains. It is in excess of the history of exports and imports among countries. (2002) It is over a comparative history. It have to be a history of affairs involving persons and customs, as well as people who belong to quite a lot of diverse cultures all together or who shift among diverse identities, modes of speech, home nations, and even nationalities. Characteristics of Globalization Globalization, has acquired considerable emotive force. Globalization has its own meaning from different individuals. For some, globalization is a process that is beneficial, i. e. a key to the future world economic development and also inevitable and irreversible. Others regard it with hospitality even fear, believing that it increases inequality within and between nations or organizations, threatens employment and living standards and thwarts social progress. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is a social change, an increase in connections among societies and their elements due to, among others, the explosive evolution of transport and communication technologies. The term is applied to many social, cultural, commercial and economic activities.

Friday, November 15, 2019

A Summary of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx Essay -- Communist M

A Summary of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx Karl Marx was an idealist. He observed the cruelties and injustices that the poor working class endured during the period of industrial revolution, and was inspired to write of a society in which no oppression existed for any class of people. Marx believed in a revolution that would end socialism and capitalism, and focus on communist principles. The Manifesto of the Communist Party, written by Karl Marx and edited by Frederick Engels, describes the goals of the communist party for ending exploitation of the working class and creating a society in which there is equality in society without social classes.1 The first part of the Manifesto is entitled the Bourgeois And Proletarians. Marx begins by explaining that the history of man and society is the history of class struggles. The modern bourgeois society has developed out of the feudal society, but in a simpler form: two classes opposing one another, the Bourgeoisie and Proletariat. With the discovery of America, and expanded markets across the world, the feudal system of industry no longer satisfied the increased needs of those markets. Manufacturing and modern industry soon took its place. This is how, according to Marx, the bourgeoisie increased their capital, advanced their political influence, and distinguished themselves from the working class. Marx accuses the bourgeoisie of turning respected professionals into wage-laborers. By creating large cities, they have centralized the population and means of production. This property then, is held by few, and so creates political power. The once independent towns and provinces are now brought together under one government with one set of laws. Despite the power that the... ...he struggles between the exploiting and the exploited. Marx concludes in the Communist Manifesto that a working-class revolution would overthrow the bourgeois and a classless society would exist.11 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. Karl Marx, â€Å"Manifesto of the Communist Party,† The Avalon Project at the Yale Law School, 1888, (5 March 2002). 2. Marx 3. Marx 4. William Leon McBride, The Philosophy of Marx, (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1977). 5. Marx 6. Marx 7. Michael Lowry, â€Å"Globalization and Internationalism: How Up-To-Date is the Communist Manifesto?† Monthly Review, November 1998, 16-27. 8. Marx 9. Marx 10. H. B. Acton, What Marx Really Said. (London: Macdonald & Co. Ltd., 1967). 11.â€Å"Attack on Capitalism,† Canada & World Backgrounder, October 1999, 19-22.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Blue Collar vs. White Collar Work Essay

Throughout history the lives of the people in the working class have not always been easy. People always work hard to earn money and support their families; however, people don’t always work in a suitable working area. The term â€Å"Blue Collar† is jobs that require manual labor from people. The problem with these kinds of jobs is that the places the people work in can be extremely unsanitary and may cause a bad working environment for the people in it. Blue collar work is also the work most people do not want to do but it is needed for the people who do white collar jobs to prosper. Also blue collar workers are known as people who did not do well in school or people that aren’t smart. Well that is not the case with these workers because without them we wouldn’t be able to do some of the things we do now or be able to survive. Also some blue collar workers are called undocumented workers in which they don’t have any documents to prove that they can work or are from this country but help the country in doing jobs that are needed for a low wage. Therefore blue collar workers are a very important part to society and we need them to thrive. For example in â€Å"Made in L.A† there are 3 young Latina immigrants who work in Los Angeles sweatshops they do manual labor for an extremely low wage. Even though they did the same work as others they got paid less because they are immigrants, it is hard work with low wages but they continue to do it to support themselves and their family just like the blue collar workers do nowadays. With the little voice they had, they protested and tried to make a difference for all future immigrant workers not to be treated inferior to them. People in blue collar jobs get paid less than white collar workers which are office work but they enjoy their job other than others even though it is dirty. Even though the U.S has strict policies on immigrants, they are actually needed because they do many of the blue collar jobs that are needed in the country. For example in the article â€Å"Putting a S top to Slave Labor† it says that† If we required good documents starting tomorrow, the nation would plunge into an instantaneous economic crisis† (p156). This would happen due the fact that they do most of the jobs that people don’t want to do and get low wages also which are blue collar jobs. There are many instances of unsanitary work places. In the article â€Å"Migrant Farm Worker,† by Studs Terkel shows the conditions of the working place and also shows child labor. He says the animals were being treated better than the workers themselves. â€Å"Veterinarians tend to the needs of domestic animals but they can’t have medical care for the workers.†(p133) this shows that the bosses who supply these people with blue collar jobs are being taken advantage of and that the animals are living better than the workers. Also this goes to show what little care the bosses had for their people and that they only cared about the money instead of the needs of these people. People need to see the working class as people rather than machines that do something over and over again. Just because someone has to work hours in front of a machine and have a dirty job does not mean that the person is not a human being. There are many people needed in the world to do some jobs that which most people would not do. If we didn’t have those kind of people and if everyone wanted to do the same thing as everyone else than we would have a hard time surviving since it is needed to be done. â€Å"The case for working with your Hands,† states â€Å"More fundamentally, now as ever, somebody has to actually do things: fix our cars, unclog our toilets, and build our houses.†(18) This goes to show that if no one does those jobs there would be a lot of problems and that we always are going to need blue collar workers perhaps more than white collar in most cases. â€Å"The Case for Working with Your Hands,† also states â€Å"The trades suffer from low prestige and I believe this is based on a simple mistake. Because work is dirty, many people assume it is also stupid.†(19) The thing that people don’t realize is that not every job is going to appeal to them because we are all different and different people do different things, just as some people like to sit behind a computer everyday some people will not do that. The treatment of workers is a growing issue and it’s going to keep on growing and growing if people don’t realize what these big companies are doing and put a stop to it. For example the shoe company Nike employs many people but the thing people don’t know is that there are 12,000 young women in Indonesia making the lowest amount of money and working long tiring shifts. Every $80 sneaker Nike makes it only costs them 12 cents for the labor. This shows the unfair treatment of these workers and how the company is taking advantage of them and it is not only Nike doing this but any major company uses the same force of labor. In â€Å"Who Makes the Clothes We Wear?† it says â€Å"Government officials raided a sweatshop filled with immigrant Thai women laboring as little as 59 cents per hour.†Also not only were they being taken advantage of the discipline was enforced by threats of rape and beatings.(26) This goes to show the little care they have for these workers and the actions that are being taken against them. It also shows a dark side to these companies in which the workers are being treated worst than dogs. In the article â€Å"Reapers† by Jean Toomer it says that â€Å"Black horses drive a mower through the weeds and there, a field rat, startled, squealing bleeds, His belly close to ground. I see the blade, Blood-stained, continue cutting weeds and shade.† (37) This article shows tough field work for black people back around the 60s. They were bleeding but their determination was too great and they continued to go and do their work. Slavery could be identified as blue collar work also. In the article â€Å"What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?† Frederick Douglass says â€Å"There is not a man beneath the canopy of heaven who does not know that slavery is wrong for him.† (140)This shows that everyone knows that slavery is wrong but they continue to do it disregard the health of the workers but the financial health of a company or a person. Slaves have to endure much pain and long haggard days with little to no pay working out on the fields and any other job that another man won’t do. Just like the slaves do these kinds of work the women in Indonesia could be compared to them because of the long working hours and the little pay with strict discipline. There is a growing problem with Third World women and how they are being used. The companies get young girls and give them work usually being blue collar work with bad working conditions and poor pay. In the article â€Å"Life on the Global Assembly Line,† it says â€Å"Older† women, aged 23 or 24, are likely to be laid off and not rehired. The lucky ones find husbands. The unlucky ones find themselves at the margins of society-as bar girls, â€Å"hostesses,† or prostitutes.†(29) This displays the women as disposable workers; once they get too old they are thrown out and out of a job. After that these women don’t have anywhere to go, some get a husband and are being taken care of and others have to resort to whatever that is needed to be done to get by. Although the problems to these blue collar workers are plain to see, the fact is that the country needs them for the economy to thrive. Even if blue collar workers are needed to have a successful economy it doesn’t change the fact that they need to be treated like people and not like dogs on the street.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Geology Questions

1. )A mastodon was found in Lafayette after being in the ground for how long? A. )30-35 million B. )30-35 billion C. )100 thousand D. )13. 7 billion 2. )What is placing geological events in a sequential order as determined from their position in the geological record? A. )geologic time B. )Relative dating C. )Radiocarbon D. )tree-ring dating 3. )Which of the following methods can be used to demonstrate age equivalency of rock units? A. )Lateral tracing B. )Radiometric Dating C. )Guide fossils D. )Position in sequence E. )All of the above 1.The first form of horses had how many toes on each foot? a. three b. seven c. four d. five 2. Is evolution Darwin's theory? a. yes b. no c. I wasn't paying attention d. who cares 3. â€Å"Survival of the fiitest† was whose idea? a. Sir Charles Lyell b. Louis Agassiz c. Charles Darwin d. Robert T. Bakker 4. Darwin was a a. math professor b. famous cartoon character c. singer d. gradualist 1. Who is the  author of a  book  that detailedà ‚  the ideas of evolution and proposed a mechanism whereby evolution could take place? a) Gary Kinsland b) Charles Robert Darwin c) Alfred Russel Wallace d) Michael Jackson . Darwin and Wallace reading Malthus's essay came to the same conclusion and both presenting this conclusion to the Linnaean Society in London. The conclusion is called a) natural selection b) the big bang theory c) genetics d) all of the above 3. What is Jean Baptiste de Lemark's theory that new traits arise in organisms according to need somehow being passed onto their descendants? a) natural selection b) artificial selection c) inheritance of acquired characteristics d) all of the above 1. fossils are mainly found in what aspect? a. forests b. oceans c. land d. mountains 2. hat was Charles Drawin known for? a. His good looks b. his ideas about life c. the theory of evoloution 3. about how long ago was earth known to be formed? a. 200 thousand years ago b. one million years ago c. 4. 6 billion years ago d. no o ne really knows 1. Fossils are best preserved in the ____________. a. rocks b. ocean c. lava d. space 2. A single celled organism that grew and produced oxygen and its structures still remain. a. stramatalites b. algae c. coral reef d. plants 3. Which species is the best geologic record of evolution? a. pig b. passenger pigeon c. whooping crane d. horse ) What period does the Cenozoic era cover? a) 65. 5 Mya to present b) 250 million years ago to about 65 million years ago c) 542 to 251 million years ago d) None of the above 2) What is something Charles Darwin is known for? a) He created the theory of evolution b) He gave us the idea that species evolved in order to better suit their environment c) A and B d) None of the above 3) What kind of fossils are more informative a) Big Fossils, because they catch our imagination b) Microfossils, because they give us more details about the environment and the climate c) Fossils of small insects and plants ) B and C 1. Fossils that are easily identified are geographically widespread, and existed for a rather short interval of geologic time are particularly useful? A. fossils B. historical fossils C. guide fossils D. new fossils E. old fossils 2. Fundamental Principles of Relative Dating include all of the following except: A. Principle of the earth’s make-up B. Principle of superposition C. Principle of cross-cutting relationships D. Principle of lateral continuity E. Principle of original horizontality 3. It is the decay rate of _________ that geologists measure to determine the absolute ages of the rocks.A. atoms B. unstable isotopes C. elements D. fossils E. rocks 1. The  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   illustrates the interactions between Earth's internal and external processes and how the three rock groups are interrelated. A. Rock Cycle B. Lithospere C. Seafloor Spreading D. Oceanic chart 2. Geology is divided into two broad areas: Physical Geology and  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã ‚   A. Historical Geology B. Cultural Geology C. Statistical Geology D. Researched Geology 3. The theory that the seafloor moves away from spreading ridges and is eventually consumed at subduction zones is: A. Seafloor Spreading B. Pangaea C. Evolution D.Cross-cutting 1) How long ago was the earth formed? a) 5. 6 billion years b) 250 million years c) 4. 6 billion years d) 1. 2 billion years 2) Which time period precedes the triassic? a) Jurassic b) Permian c) Silurian d) Pre-Cambrian 3) What kind of unconformity is characterized by a change in the slope of the strata? a) Angular unconformity b) Paraconformity c) Disconformity d) Nonconformity 1. What era did the dinosaurs rome the earth? a. the Triassic Period b. Jurrasic Period c. Paleolithic period d. Neolithic Period 2. What is fossil succession? a. When fossils are lined up next to each other . When different animals are fossiled together c. The idea that he kinds of animals and plants found as fossils changed through time. 3. W hat is a Light year? a. A term made up by star wars b. a mile in space c. It is the distance that light can travel in one year. 1. ) James Hutton is know for A. Being the founder of modern geology B. Discovering radioactivity C. Creating the principle of cross-cutting relationships D. Both A. and C. 2. ) The first hard-shelled creatures evolved approximately A. 900 million years ago B. 2 million years ago C. 200 million years ago D. It is unknown 3. Carbon 14 is a radioactive ______ of carbon. A. Ion B. Isotope C. Particle D. Element In what direction does the Dekota Ridge run from the mountain it is connected to? A. Horizontal B. Vertical C. Perpendicular D. Parallel What animal was the first horse comparison to in size? A. Fish B. Bird C. Cat D. Dog What percentage of known species of life has disappeared? A. 73 B. 46 C. 90 D. 65 1. The first horses were no larger than what animal? a. Cats b. Cows c. Dogs d. Rabbits 2. Who first discussed the idea that species change to better sur vive their surroundings? a. Sir Isaac Newton b. Charles Darwin c.Albert Einstein d. Charles Manson 3. The first horses had how many toes? a. 3 b. 0 c. 5 d. 4 _________ is an informal term that encompasses all geologic time from 4. 6 to 4. 0 billion years ago. A. Archean B. siderian C. Hadean D. Stenian E. neoarchean The cratons are the foundations of continents, and along their margins more continental crust was added, a process called ________. A. Continental accretion B. shield C. Precambrian D. Canadian shield E. protocontinents Any change in the genetic makeup of species is called ______. A. Macroevolution B. convergence C. Evolution D. Cladistics E. microevolution 1.How many toes did the first horses have? a. 4 b. 3 c. 6 d. none 2. Who said that species gradually change to suit there natural habitat? a. Chuck Norris b. Charles Darwin c. Jesus d. both a and c 3. Darwin gave us the _________ of evolution. a. theory b. phone number c. dictionary d. method What percentage of known species of life have disappeared? A. 70 B. 69 C. 90 D. 45 1. ) What do Paleontologists call the â€Å"missing links† that connect the descendants with ancestors when providing evidence for evolution with fossils? A. Trace Fossils B. Body Fossils C. Dino Bones D. Transitional Fossils E. Vestigial Structures 2. What is the type of structure that may be superficially similar and serve the same function, as in the wings of insects and birds, but they are dissimilar in structure and development? A. Constructed Structure B. Analogous Structure C. Twin Structure D. Homologous Structure E. Classification Structure 3. ) What principle, articulated by Charles Lyell, became the guiding principle of geology, which holds that the laws of nature have been constant through time and that the same process operating today have operated in the past, although not necessarily at the same rates? A. Uniformitarianism B. Diesm C. Conformism D.Baptism E. Cannibalism 1) The universe is approximately _ ______ times older than the Earth. a. Two b. Three c. Four d. Six 2. ) Fossils are best preserved a. in Oceans b. in Mountains c. on Land d. in Outer Space 3. Earth is ________ years old. a. 3. 7 billion b. 13. 7 billion c. 4. 6 billion d. 4. 6 million e. None of the above 1. How long can Carbon14 be used? A. 55,000 years B. 75,000 years C. 10,000 years D. 1,000,000 years E. Unknown 2. Who founded radioactivity? A. Madame Marie Cury B. James Hudton C. Gary Kinsland D. James Newton E. It is unknown 3. Which time period marked the 1st period of shelled organisms?A. Cambrian B. Jurassic C. Paleozoic D. Mesozoic E. Both A and C 4. The parent-daughter ratio is usually determined by what? A. atomic mass number B. alpha decay C. mass spectrometer D. track dating E. none of the above 5. The process of demonstrating the time equivalency of rock unit in different areas is: A. relative dating B. correlation C. radioactive decay D. Both A and C E. None of the above 6. Who is credited with formu lating the principle of cross-cutting relationships? A. Nicolas Steno B. James Hutton C. Lord Kelvin D. Madame Cury E. None of the above 1) What is Absolute Dating? )When male and female rocks form together to make another rock b)a common method of obtaining absolute ages c)When Powell led a second expedition down the Colorado River in 1871 d)Specific dates for rock units or events expressed in years before the present 2) Who is the Father of Modern Geology? a)Albert Einstein b)James Usher c)James Hutton d) Alexander the Great 3) What is a secondary way to determine relative ages of rocks, other than by of heat? a)Principle of Fossil Succession b)Principle of Fossil Assemblages c)Principle of Inclusions d)Superposition 1) Which of the following is not a type of strata unconformities? A. Disconformity B.Lateral Unconformity C. Angular Unconformity D. Nonconformity 2) How do scientists correlate rock units over a large area? A. Principle of Superposition B. Principle of Inclusions C. Principle of Fossil Succession D. Contact Metamorphism 3) Radioactive decay occurs at a ______ rate. Therefore, a graph of the decay rate produces a ______. A. linear / straight line B. geometric / curve C. linear / curve D. geometric / straight line 1. ________ reproduction hinders evolution. a. Sexual b. Asexual c. Pansexual d. Infrequent 2. Earth's atmospheric shift from a mainly carbon dioxide atmosphere to a mainly oxygen atmosphere was caused by _______. . life on Earth b. the recycling of igneous rocks c. the earth cooling down d. every being on earth holding its breath at the same time 3. The â€Å"Cambrian Explosion† features life forms that have _______ for the very first time. a. extremities b. fur c. hard shells d. beaks 4. Rocks are to â€Å"Orientals† just as rocks are to _______. a. â€Å"Occidentals† b. Asians c. Blacks d. people from Oregon 1. What is an outcrop? a. a place where rocks come out to the surface b. a 1960's hair-cut c. inserts of y ounger rock in existing older rock d. the head of vegetables in a field 2. what is the most common mineral in the Earth? a. silicon b. feldspar . sediment d. rocks 3. which carbon type is radio-active? a. carbon X b. carbon 18 c. carbon Z3 d. carbon 14 1. Fossilization is a very unusual process, even in the ocean because of A. people tampering with the process B. scavengers C. the amount of water it's under D. natural disasters that occur 2. Why is an anoxic environment the best way for an fossil to become preserved? A. It stops the scavengers from living B. People aren't able to survive in that type of environment C. It speeds up the process D. None of the above 3. What type of organisms are more likely to become fossilized? A. One with bones B. any type C. One with a shellD. both A and C 1. When the oldest layers are on bottom? (Class notes) A) Original Continuity B) Superposition C) Original Horizontality D) Radio Activity 2. When were plants and animals abundant on land accordin g to video #1's geologic time calendar year? A) Early March B) Late March C) Late July D) Late November 3. How were fossils formed? (Video #2) A) Molds of an organism B) Crystallized casts C) Fossil tracks and burrows D) All of the above .)  Ã‚  Ã‚   Preservation from fossils are best a. In oceans b. On land c. In mountains d. grass 2. )  Ã‚  Ã‚   What are the most common types of fossils? a)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Molded b)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Cast c)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Imprint )  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Whole animal 3. )  Ã‚  Ã‚   Where is the best place to bury yourself if you would like to be preserved? a)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Great plains b)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Rocky mountains c)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Gulf of Mexico d)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Nevada 1. Which is the oldest of the geologic time scale_____? a. cambrian b. permian c. jurassic d. mississippian 2. Which is the oldest of the geologic time scale_____? a. cambrian b. permian c. jurassic d. mississippian 3. What is educa tion______? a. learning b. going to school c. learning while going to school d. the process of becoming disabused of your preconsumed notions 1. Early Earth's atmosphere was largely made up of what? A. Oxygen B. Nitrogen C.Carbon-Dioxide D. Carbon-Monoxide 2. The arrival of hard shell organisms was in which period? A. Siluvian B. Cambrian C. Permian D. There from the beginning 3. What is the most common kind of fossil? A. Molds B. Tracks C. Bones D. Shells Professor Kinsland mainly supports what other University (other than ULL)? A) LSU B)University of Oregon C)UNO D)University of Texas Algae is A) one of the simplest life forms B) a complicated living being C) a mineral D) a fossil About how many miles of compacted fossils, minerals, etc. are buried beneath our feet from the past million years? A) 10 miles B) 2000 miles C) 8 miles D) none; they disenegrate

Friday, November 8, 2019

Xml And Java Essays - Markup Languages, Technical Communication

Xml And Java Essays - Markup Languages, Technical Communication Xml And Java XML and Java Abstract Most web developers are intimately familiar with HTML, which is a language for presenting information on-screen so that it can be read by a human. A new markup language is rapidly gaining attention, however. XML allows for the presentation of information which can be read by a computer program. It is likely that the future of web development includes the creation of increasing numbers of programs, which make intelligent use of the data on XML-based web pages. And Java is a very good language for creating those programs. There has been a close relationship between Java and XML since the earliest mention of XML. John Bosak of Sun Microsystems, Chair of the XML Working Group has said that XML gives Java something to do (Web Techniques, pg. 43). Since there has been a decision to provide a standard Java API for manipulating XML (WT Pg. 43), the use of Java to manipulate XML documents is likely to continue, and increase over time. What is XML? XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. It looks a lot like HTML. In fact, both HTML and XML are commonly viewed as a subset of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language). SGML is very complicated, a fact that has lead to its failure to gain widespread usage. HTML, its greatly simplified descendant, has been a resounding success, but it is beginning to demonstrate some significant limitations. XML is in between these markup languages in terms of complexity. It is more complex than HTML, but still significantly less complex than SGML. (Dynamic Web Publishing Unleashed - Pg. 744-745). It is essentially an attempt to define a common ground between HTML and SGML. Like SGML, XML is a metalanguage for defining markup languages. XML allows you to define your own markup language consisting of new tags which you can use to encode the information in your web documents far more precisely than can be done with HTML. XML is not a replacement for HTML. It is, instead, a supplement to HTML. While HTML will continue to be used for standard web pages, XML will be useful for applications that need more intelligent documents and more processing ability (DWP - Pg. 745). The main limitations of HTML are lack of extensibility, structure, and validation. (http:// Extensibility. HTML has a fixed number of tags. While the W3C and browser developers can (and frequently do) add tags, users cannot create their own tags to more accurately describe their data. Structure. HTML does not support the creation of nested tags, which would be used to describe and represent databases or object hierarchies. Validation. HTML does not support document validation. It has no means of allowing an application to check the data for validity, or to ensure that the markup is correct and well formed. XML differs from HTML in all three of these major areas: It allows developers to define new tags and attributes as needed It allows document tags to be nested as deeply as needed. Any XML document can include or make reference to a description of its grammar and syntax for use by applications that need to validate the structure of a document. XML will be most widely used in applications, which cannot be accomplished within the limitations of HTML. According to Jon Bosak of Sun Microsystems (Future of the web) These applications can be divided into four broad categories: Applications that require the Web client to mediate between two or more heterogeneous databases Applications that require the Web client to present different views of the same data to different users. Applications that require the Web client to present different views of the same data to different users. Applications in which intelligent Web agents attempt to tailor information discovery to the needs of the individual users. One more quote from Mr. Bosak: XML can do for data what Java has done for programs, which is to make the data both platform-independent and vendor-independent. Why Java? It can be argued that Java is an ideal language to use to create the applications listed above. At the most obvious level, both have been promoted almost exclusively for use in Web environments. But several features of the Java language make

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

How to Estimate Standard Deviations (SD)

How to Estimate Standard Deviations (SD) The standard deviation and range are both measures of the spread of a data set. Each number tells us in its own way how spaced out the data are, as they are both a measure of variation.  Although there is not an explicit relationship between the range and standard deviation, there is a rule of thumb that can be useful to relate these two statistics.  This relationship is sometimes referred to as the range rule for standard deviation. The range rule tells us that the standard deviation of a sample is approximately equal to one-fourth of the range of the data. In other words s (Maximum – Minimum)/4. This is a very straightforward formula to use, and should only be used as a very rough estimate of the standard deviation. An Example To see an example of how the range rule works, we will look at the following example. Suppose we start with the data values of 12, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 18, 20, 20, 25. These values have a mean of 17 and a standard deviation of about 4.1. If instead we first calculate the range of our data as 25 – 12 13 and then divide this number by four we have our estimate of the standard deviation as 13/4 3.25. This number is relatively close to the true standard deviation and good for a rough estimate. Why Does It Work? It may seem like the range rule is a bit strange. Why does it work? Doesn’t it seem completely arbitrary to just divide the range by four? Why wouldn’t we divide by a different number? There is actually some mathematical justification going on behind the scenes. Recall the properties of the bell curve and the probabilities from a standard normal distribution. One feature has to do with the amount of data that falls within a certain number of standard deviations: Approximately 68% of the data is within one standard deviation (higher or lower) from the mean.Approximately 95% of the data is within two standard deviations (higher or lower) from the mean.Approximately 99% is within three standard deviations (higher or lower) from the mean. The number that we will use has to do with 95%. We can say that 95% from two standard deviations below the mean to two standard deviations above the mean, we have 95% of our data. Thus nearly all of our normal distribution would stretch out over a line segment that is a total of four standard deviations long. Not all data is normally distributed and bell curve shaped. But most data is well-behaved enough that going two standard deviations away from the mean captures nearly all of the data. We estimate and say that four standard deviations are approximately the size of the range, and so the range divided by four is a rough approximation of the standard deviation. Uses for the Range Rule The range rule is helpful in a number of settings. First, it is a very quick estimate of the standard deviation. The standard deviation requires us to first find the mean, then subtract this mean from each data point, square the differences, add these, divide by one less than the number of data points, then (finally) take the square root. On the other hand, the range rule only requires one subtraction and one division. Other places where the range rule is helpful is when we have incomplete information. Formulas such as that to determine sample size require three pieces of information: the desired margin of error, the level of confidence and the standard deviation of the population we are investigating. Many times it is impossible to know what the population standard deviation is. With the range rule, we can estimate this statistic, and then know how large we should make our sample.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Molesworth Manor Communication Campaign Coursework

Molesworth Manor Communication Campaign - Coursework Example As a result, it is vital that Molesworth Manor devise a way to avoid this occurrence since the profitability may be ultimately affected. It is for this reason that empty nesters have been targeted as the next market for Molesworth Manor. This is a group of lonely people since they have no school-going children unlike the ones that Molesworth Manor has been targeting. The current situation is that this group is not among the people targeted by Molesworth Manor. Yet, these people need not wait for their children to come on holiday to book for rooms at Molesworth Manor. Therefore, it is highly recommendable that this group be targeted this year. For this sole reason was this reported created to ensure that Molesworth Manor remains profitable irrespective of the period. Molesworth Manor (MM) has been actively engaged in the hospitality industry for several decades now where its brand has been tremendously celebrated. The geographic location of Molesworth manor favours it in various ways including having some of the wealthiest counties around. The towns of Hampshire, Buckinghamshire and Surrey are some of the towns named as the wealthiest with every household having at least one car. Further, this hotel’s location prides itself for having a great number of empty nesters. Additionally, the infrastructure is not a problem in the area meaning clients can access the hotel without any inconveniences at all. In light of the above, the objectives Molesworth Manor wishes to achieve in this campaign include finding a solution to the months when there is low occupancy. Normally, Molesworth Manor is mostly booked during the school holidays when the families spend several days there. However, the months of February, March and October are adversely affected since not many families book the hotel during this time.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Clinical evidence and presentation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Clinical evidence and presentation - Essay Example Psoriasis is a long-term condition, often re-surfacing after years of remission. It is often treated depending on the severity of the disease and body surface covered. Topical solutions like creams, ointments, and lotions are usually preferred treatment methods for mild forms of the disease. For the more moderate to severe manifestations of the disease, pills, injections and light treatments are used, as topical solutions are insufficient to manage the disease. This paper will critically analyze the current clinical evidence to support the management of the disease, reviewing one mainstream over the counter therapy and one complementary/alternative therapy for the disease. This paper will review the drugs Daivonex, Exorex, and alternative medicine treatment options, and assess their effectiveness in treating psoriasis. Daivonex, a non-steroidal medication containing calcipotriol is currently one of the main drugs being used for the treatment of psoriasis. Some practitioners have reviewed this drug and found it ineffective and inapplicable for some types of psoriasis. Daivonex is not applicable for widespread (all over the body) psoriasis. For those who suffer from some types of psoriasis like guttate, generalized pustular psoriasis, or erythrodermis psoriasis, Daivonex is also not applicable (Medical-Look, 2008). In applying the medication, the patient has also to be cautioned about getting any of the medicine on unaffected skin, as it can cause skin irritation. Clinicians do admit that Daivonex is recommended safe for most psoriasis sufferers, but they caution that there are some potential users of the drug that need to consult with their doctors before using it. Allergy to calcipotriol and any drug containing such ingredient can trigger allergic reactions. Allergic reactions tend to include difficulty in breathing, wheezing, swelling of the throat, face, lips, or tongue, rashes or hives. There are various precautions which are required for